Paralysis

 

Paralysis is a general term used to describe the loss of sensory and motor function after damage of the nervous system. Knowing the exact level of injury is helpful in predicting what parts of the body may be affected by paralysis and loss of sensory functions.

The level at which the lesion is located will determine the severity of effects: the higher the lesion, the greater the damage. The severity of the effects of the lesion also varies by the type of injury that may be complete or incomplete.

Common causes of paralysis

Paralysis as mentioned above may be complete or incomplete (this is called paresis) and can be made because of problems that affect the brain structure or the bone marrow, or peripheral nerves that affect the individual muscles.

Central paralysis

Most often this is based on atherosclerotic vascular accidents as in the case of thromboembolism or bleeding in the brain (stroke) in the affected area a cerebral edema will develop, causing the failure of the motor neurons of that place, the same situation occurs in the course of neoplastic processes, namely cancer, that damage the nervous structures that expand as well as cysts and brain abscesses, post-traumatic hematomas do and, less commonly, tuberculous granuloma, hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies such as aneurysms, spinal cord injury, infectious processes.

Peripheral paralysis

They are as many as the peripheral nerves and may be caused by cancer, infectious or related to physical agents such as cold; among infections it is important to remember those paralysis that come from herpes zoster, while as an example of cold paralysis we can mention that one that come from a type of facial nerve paralysis. Neoplastic lesions can cause paralysis with different mechanisms: the main type comes from neoplastic infiltration of nerve fibers and from nerve compression by the growing tumor.

Paralysis from trauma and poisoning

Another obvious cause of peripheral paralysis is made by the traumatic interruption or contusion of the spine. Peripheral paralysis can also be caused by poisoning: common are upper limbs paralysis coming form lead intoxication. Finally, the toxins produced by the bacteria clostridium botulism or tetanus cause paralysis, spastic in the first case and flaccid in the second one.

For each of these types of paralysis, the result is the complete or partial immobility of one or more portion of the body because muscles no longer receive impulses from the central nervous system. It is essential to try recreating a new synaptic circuits that will help to restore or to improve mobility, recovering as much as possible a normal functional lifestyle.